Web site:
Origin: Netherlands
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86, MIPS, Motorola 68030, NS 32016, SUN 3/50 & 3/60, SPARC, VAX
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia: Amoeba_(operating_system)
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 5.3 | July 30, 1996

Amoeba – a fully functional operating system with shared time by Andrew S. Tannenbaum from Vrije University. The Amoeba distribution includes the source code, binaries and kernels for all supported architectures plus full on-line and Postscript versions of the documentation.

Amoeba is a powerful microkernel-based system that turns a collection of workstations or single-board computers into a transparent distributed system. It has been in use in academia, industry, and government for about 5 years. It runs on the SPARC (Sun4c and Sun4m), the 386/486, 68030, and Sun 3/50 and Sun 3/60.

Amoeba is a general-purpose distributed operating system. It is designed to take a collection of machines and make them act together as a single integrated system. In general, users are not aware of the number and location of the processors that run their commands, nor of the number and location of the file servers that store their files. To the casual user, an Amoeba system looks like a single old-fashioned time-sharing system.

Amoeba is an ongoing research project. It should be thought of as a platform for doing research and development in distributed and parallel systems, languages, protocols and applications. Although it provides some UNIX emulation, and has a definite UNIX-like flavor (including over 100 UNIX-like utilities), it is NOT a plug-compatible replacement for UNIX. It should be of interest to educators and researchers who want the source code of a distributed operating system to inspect and tinker with, as well as to those who need a base to run distributed and parallel applications. Amoeba is intended for both ‘‘distributed’’ computing (multiple independent users working on different projects) and ‘‘parallel’’ computing (e.g., one user using 50 CPUs to play chess in parallel). Amoeba provides the necessary mechanism for doing both distributed and parallel applications, but the policy is entirely determined by user-level programs. For example, both a traditional (i.e. sequential) ‘make’ and a new parallel ‘amake’ are supplied.


MCC Interim

MCC Interim

Web site:
Origin: United Kingdom
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: text
Architecture: x86
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia: MCC Interim
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 2.0+ | November 4, 1996

MCC Interim Linux – a Linux distribution first released in February 1992 by Owen Le Blanc of the Manchester Computing Centre (MCC), part of the University of Manchester. It was the first Linux distribution created for computer users who were not Unix experts and featured a menu-driven installer that installed both the kernel and a set of end-user and programming tools.

It comes on two floppies, but there are a few others available.

The Manchester ComputING CentRE was once Manchester University Regional Computer Centre (pronounced ‘murk’) and later UMRCC. The change from ‘computer’ to ‘computing’ was made (supposedly) to mark a shift in emphasis from supporting machines to supporting the people who use them. (Some of the people who use them complain that the shift in emphasis has not yet been implemented.) The University of Manchester has been known to claim that computers were invented here, which they were if you define ‘computer’ properly.

The latest ‘interim’ release from MCC does manage to squeeze quite a lot onto TWO disks: one of which combines the boot and root disk, and one of which can be called the ‘utilities’ disk. The boot disk boots, loads its root device from the same disk, and then starts executing /etc/rc. This runs a little script which asks for the drive size, and mounts the utilities disk (which you will of course have placed in the drive when you were instructed to). The commands available on the combined boot/util combination are approximately equivalent to those on Jim Winstead’s root disk.

There are disk images which may be needed to install this release of MCC Interim Linux. Please read these instructions carefully. Every installation requires disk (3) and either disk (1) or disk (2). Installations which require SCSI drivers and non-IDE/SCSI/ATAPI CD-ROM drivers also require disk (4). Boot from the appropriate boot disk, and follow instructions.
(1) boot.1200.gz: This file makes a 5.25 inch boot floppy. You must gunzip this file before you copy it to the floppy in raw mode.
(2) boot.1440.gz: This file makes a 3.5 inch boot floppy. You must gunzip this file before you copy it to the floppy in raw mode.
(3) root.gz: This file makes the root floppy required in all installations. There are two ways to use this file:
– (a) Copy it to the floppy in raw mode without gunzipping. This is the normal way to use it. Advantages: it is faster to use. Disadvantages: it won’t work if you have 4 Mb or less of memory; you can’t easily change it.
– (b) Unzip it and copy it to the floppy in raw mode. Do this only if you need to change the disk, or to install on a system with 4 Mb of memory. It won’t work on 5.25 inch disks. Advantages: it is easier to change the disk; it works on a 4 Mb machine. Disadvantages: it is much slower to use.
(4) scsi-cd.gz: This file makes the scsi-cd driver disk. You must gunzip this file before you copy it to the floppy in raw mode. You don’t need this disk unless you need a SCSI disk driver, or a non-IDE/SCSI/ATAPI CD-ROM driver.


MCC Interim 2.0+ boot.1200 1.11MB.gz
md5sum: 8fcbd38bbc025f08a052b2847db2d430
MCC Interim 2.0+ boot.1440 1.11MB.gz
md5sum: d35c0b319862e52a5ea4b422e3b3914a
MCC Interim 2.0+ root 0.98MB.gz
md5sum: 00df4af0ba934c10b4ac2974b5ef2e3a
MCC Interim 2.0+ scsi-cd 0.52MB.gz
md5sum: 00df4af0ba934c10b4ac2974b5ef2e3a