eComStation

eComStation

Web site: ecomstation.com
Origin: USA
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: GUI
Architecture: x86
Based on: OS/2
Wikipedia: eComStation
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 2.2 beta 2 | December 13, 2013

eComStation (eCS) – an Internet enabled platform for business desktop computing. The focus of eCS is to provide an organization with a set of world class business applications and an application engine which can support multiple API sets. eCS is REXX enabled and comes with support for Java, Windows 3.x (limited 32 bit Windows), OS/2 and DOS applications.

The eComStation was released by Serenity Systems and Mensys BV, but it is currently owned and developed by XEU.com.

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OS/2

OS/2

Web site: www-01.ibm.com/software/os/warp-withdrawal/ (not active)
Origin: USA
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: Workplace Shell (WPS)
Architecture: x86, PowerPC
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia: OS/2
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 4.52 | December 2001

OS/2 – a proprietary operating system, started in 1985 by IBM and Microsoft with a name of “CP/DOS”. Originally, OS/2 was expected to gradually replace DOS and Windows.

In the summer of 1990, Microsoft announced Windows 3.0 and it became a monster hit. The relationship between IBM and Microsoft was already strained, and further development of OS/2 was left entirely to IBM. Microsoft went on to develop NT, enhance Windows, and produce Windows 95.

Eventually, IBM figured out what was wrong and fixed it. OS/2 2.0 and 2.1 used 386 memory management, ran almost all DOS programs, and ran most Windows applications as well. IBM now supports clone computers, and has largely abandoned its PS/2 Microchannel family for the same PCI, ISA, IDE, SVGA architecture everyone else uses.

In the fall of 1994, IBM released Warp (OS/2 3.0) and made its last big marketing push for OS/2. IBM had a product out ten months before Windows 95 would be released. OS/2 was technically a better system than Windows 95 would be, with real program integrity, priorities, and server-quality I/O. None of this was discussed in any of the IBM ads or announcements. Instead, IBM concentrated on a “one button connection to the Internet” through IBM’s expensive public network. It would be six months before IBM released a version of Warp for corporate and campus use (with LAN support) and IBM never succeeded in capturing market share for Warp among home computer users.

Application programs could not interfere with themselves or with each other. The system could natively use larger amounts of memory. Yet the system maintained the command language and file structure of DOS.

Each OS/2 program runs in its own address space. It is common to talk about the old 16-bit programs and the newer 32-bit programs, but OS/2 does not separate the two or treat them differently. More accurately, OS/2 assumes that each of its applications may have a mixture of 16-bit and 32-bit pieces. OS/2 is itself a hybrid system with mixtures of both types of code.

OS/2 recognizes when a program has been constructed using the old 16-bit tools (producing variable sized segments) or with the new 32-bit tools (providing 4K pages). The different EXE file structure changes the way that the program is loaded into memory. Once they start running, however, all modules get the same services and all are assumed to have both 16 and 32-bit components.

Native OS/2 programs open files, request storage, or load programs by calling standard system routines. These routines are packaged in the same sort of Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs) that are used in Windows. There are 16-bit and 32-bit libraries with versions of all the standard system services, and a program can choose which to call.

The Workplace Shell (WPS) was introduced in OS/2 2.0. WPS is an object-oriented shell allowing the user to perform traditional computing tasks such as accessing files, printers, launching legacy programs, and advanced object oriented tasks using built-in and third-party application objects that extended the shell in an integrated fashion not available on any other mainstream operating system.

The last version of OS/2 4.52 was released in 2001.

The project was re-branded to ArcaOS and is under development by Arca Noae.

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OS/2 3.0 Warp i386 383MB.iso
md5sum: 290f78744f5343e3bf05a331a8e0e45f
OS/2 4 Warp trial 333MB.iso
md5sum: debd1d8e3ab5e9a940e4458b9a5d6955
OS/2 4 Warp interactive demo for Win31/Win95 84MB.iso
md5sum: 95cbf702a31541e7ad20bc5e2d32bcb4

 

OS|periment

null

Web site: theosperiment.wordpress.com
Origin: France
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia:
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | 2013

OS|periment – a project which focuses on creating a desktop operating system that caters to modern computer hardware and usage patterns.

In the main codebase, it uses UNIX-style shell scripts, Assembly, C++, and C.

The project founder is Hadrien G.

 

Arax OS

Arax OS

Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/arax/
Origin: Iran
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia:
Media: Live
The last version | Released: ? | 2016

Arax OS – a 32bit, protected mode operating system for x86 architecture , which is programmed in the C and assembly languages.

The project founder is Pooya Shahinfar.

 

Ostin Project

null

Web site: ostin.googlecode.com (not active)
Origin: Belarus
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: ?
Architecture: x86
Based on: KolibriOS
Wikipedia:
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | 2013

Ostin Project – an operating system based on (and is developed in loose coordination with) KolibriOS.

It offers strict code formatting and commenting guidelines as well as proper documentation. While Kolibri is mostly developed by Russian/ex-USSR community, Ostin tries to be as much international as possible.

Ostin is also strictly assembly-only, just-for-fun operating system.

The project founder is Mike Gelfand.

 

AxidOS

AxidOS

Web site: github.com/Asido/OS
Origin: ?
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia:
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | May 2016

AxidOS – a hobby x86 32-bit operating system, mostly written in C.

Dependencies required to build the AxidOS:
dosfstools – this is required to make virtual floppy image used to boot the OS
nasm -the boot loader is written in Netwide Assembler (NASM)
gcc – the GNU C Compiler
coreutils -mount, dd, cp…

The project founder is Arvydas Sidorenko.

 

Fsaos

Fsaos

Web site: github.com/farlepet/fsaos
Origin: USA
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86
Based on: Independent ?
Wikipedia:
Media: Live
The last version | Released: ? | August 8, 2014

Fsaos (Fairly Simple Assembly Operating System) – an operating system created purely for hobby and education purposes.

It is mostly written in Assembly and released under the MIT License.

The project founder is Peter Farley.

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Fsaos x86 485KB.iso
md5sum: 20de75f18ab08497af843331245cd766
Fsaos source code 89KB.zip
md5sum: 1874dc55b57a6d1542db1205b1185d62

 

OpenStep

OpenStep

Web site: gnustep.org/resources/OpenStepSpec/OpenStepSpec.html
Origin: USA
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment:
Architecture: IA-32, PA-RISC, SPARC
Based on: UNIX
Wikipedia: OpenStep
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | ?

OpenStep – an object-oriented operating system that uses any modern operating system as its core. Mainly created by NeXT. NeXT Computer Inc, and Sun Microsystems Inc. teamed up in late 1993 to push a free object layer API based on the NeXTSTEP object system. This agreement evolved into the OpenStep specification which was published by NeXT in a first draft back in summer 1994.

There is a distinction between OpenStep, which is an API specification, and OPENSTEP (capitalized) which is a specific implementation of OpenStep developed by NeXT. Although it was originally created on a Unix-based Mach kernel (just like the NeXTSTEP core), OPENSTEP versions were also available on Solaris and Microsoft Windows NT. Therefore, OPENSTEP libraries (which were supplied with the OPENSTEP system) are actually a subset of the original OpenStep specification.

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NeXTSTEP

NeXTSTEP

Web site: (not active)
Origin: USA
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment:
Architecture: Intel x86, Motorola 68000, SPARC, PA-RISC
Based on: UNIX
Wikipedia: NeXTSTEP
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 4.2 Pre-release 2 | September 1997

NeXTSTEP – an object-oriented, multitasking operating system created by NeXT Computer, Inc. a company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.

This system was created on the base of Mach microkernel and BSD Unix system code. NeXTStep was oriented to work in a graphical environment. It had a very well-prepared, intuitive user interface, based on object-oriented architecture, quite different from both the most popular then Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Mac OS. The visualization engine was based on Postscript, which on one hand made it very demanding in terms of hardware (considerable demand for memory) and on other hand an ideal solution for industrial and designer workstations.

NeXTSTEP 1.0 was released 18 September 1989 after a couple of hits in 1986, and last Release 3.3 in early 1995, and previously worked only on the Motorola 68000 CPU family (especially the original black boxes) and the generic IBM compatible x86/Intel, Sun SPARC , and HP PA-RISC. About the time 3.2 releases NeXT teamed up with Sun Microsystems to develop OpenStep, cross-platform implementation of the standard (for Sun Solaris, Microsoft Windows, and NeXT Mach kernel version) based on NEXTSTEP 3.2.

In February 1997, after the purchase of NeXT by Apple, it became the source of the popular operating systems macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.

The NeXTSTEP screenshot’s author: Gürkan Sengün; source: Wikipedia; License: GNU GPL.

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GNOSIS

null

Web site: cis.upenn.edu/~KeyKOS/Gnosis/Gnosis.html (not active)
Origin: USA
Category: Server
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: IBM ?
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia: GNOSIS
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | ?

GNOSIS (Great New Operating System In the Sky) – an example of a completely different kind of operating system. Gnosis was developed by TYMSHARE as a proprietary control program and it also developed proprietary application packages to run on it. GNOSIS was based on the research of Norman Hardy, Dale E. Jordan, Bill Frantz, Charlie Landau, Jay Jonekait, et al. McDonnell Douglas bought Tymshare, Inc. and then sold it in 1984 to Key Logic.

Programs under Gnosis are built out of protection domains with firewalls between them. Domains are small, simple, and cheap.
Domains communicate through doors in the firewalls, called capabilities. Capabilities are a simple, uniform, efficient means of representing authority.

There are several significant factors which make it possible.

* First, and foremost, the Gnosis concept of distinct domains without implicit interactions between them results in simpler programs. Because of this, we have had to spend a great deal of time designing the interfaces between these domains to insure that adequate function exists in each; but perhaps even that is a benefit since we will know exactly how the system goes together. The basic design of Gnosis will ensure that no compromises to the design occur during the implementation.

* Second, because individual components are completely isolated from each other, except for the prescribed interfaces, it is a simple matter to implement each domain independently of the remainder of the operating system. Very little scaffolding is required. We went to install the CMS editor in Gnosis and noted all of the things we thought ought to be there as co-requisites, things like a command language to call the editor, a file system, a loader, catalog facilities, and so on. To our surprise, we discovered that we didn’t need any of those facilities. We could just connect the editor directly to the terminal handler and test it. This made development go much quicker.

* Third, we have been able to coexist with, and take advantage of, CMS during the early going. We expect to use CMS services for quite some while for compiling programs and so forth. Thus our “critical mass” of code is very much smaller that it would otherwise be.

* Fourth, the basic design of Gnosis allows us to write most of the operating system as user code, which means we will be able to eliminate a lot of duplication of effort in terms of testing tools, etc. The system will also be much simpler because all of the details of the hardware are masked in the kernel. Consequently no domain programmer need ever deal with them, which makes the domains simpler, and also greatly reduces the impact of any hardware changes. We have tended to follow the advice of Fred Brooks in the Mythical Man-month, where he suggests “be prepared to throw the first one away.” We have implemented each domain with the simplest possible algorithms in order to test the design. Later we will have to discard many of these domains and rewrite them with high performance algorithms which obey the same interface specifications. Most of these first attempt domains can be implemented In a matter of days.

* Last, but certainly not least, we have a relatively high technology “office of the future” system called AUGMENT which we are using to keep all of our design notes as well as our user documentation. The use of this system,will save us a significant amount of labor as we develop a user community over the next several years.

The combination of these facilities has made it possible for us to implement a great deal of function very quickly. As Norm mentioned earlier, we have only just started running our first domains recently. Yet we expect to be able to have a significant online database application operational within a year.

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