GNOSIS

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Web site: cis.upenn.edu/~KeyKOS/Gnosis/Gnosis.html (not active)
Origin: USA
Category: Server
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: IBM ?
Based on: Independent
Wikipedia: GNOSIS
Media: Install
The last version | Released: ? | ?

GNOSIS (Great New Operating System In the Sky) – an example of a completely different kind of operating system. Gnosis was developed by TYMSHARE as a proprietary control program and it also developed proprietary application packages to run on it. GNOSIS was based on the research of Norman Hardy, Dale E. Jordan, Bill Frantz, Charlie Landau, Jay Jonekait, et al. McDonnell Douglas bought Tymshare, Inc. and then sold it in 1984 to Key Logic.

Programs under Gnosis are built out of protection domains with firewalls between them. Domains are small, simple, and cheap.
Domains communicate through doors in the firewalls, called capabilities. Capabilities are a simple, uniform, efficient means of representing authority.

There are several significant factors which make it possible.

* First, and foremost, the Gnosis concept of distinct domains without implicit interactions between them results in simpler programs. Because of this, we have had to spend a great deal of time designing the interfaces between these domains to insure that adequate function exists in each; but perhaps even that is a benefit since we will know exactly how the system goes together. The basic design of Gnosis will ensure that no compromises to the design occur during the implementation.

* Second, because individual components are completely isolated from each other, except for the prescribed interfaces, it is a simple matter to implement each domain independently of the remainder of the operating system. Very little scaffolding is required. We went to install the CMS editor in Gnosis and noted all of the things we thought ought to be there as co-requisites, things like a command language to call the editor, a file system, a loader, catalog facilities, and so on. To our surprise, we discovered that we didn’t need any of those facilities. We could just connect the editor directly to the terminal handler and test it. This made development go much quicker.

* Third, we have been able to coexist with, and take advantage of, CMS during the early going. We expect to use CMS services for quite some while for compiling programs and so forth. Thus our “critical mass” of code is very much smaller that it would otherwise be.

* Fourth, the basic design of Gnosis allows us to write most of the operating system as user code, which means we will be able to eliminate a lot of duplication of effort in terms of testing tools, etc. The system will also be much simpler because all of the details of the hardware are masked in the kernel. Consequently no domain programmer need ever deal with them, which makes the domains simpler, and also greatly reduces the impact of any hardware changes. We have tended to follow the advice of Fred Brooks in the Mythical Man-month, where he suggests “be prepared to throw the first one away.” We have implemented each domain with the simplest possible algorithms in order to test the design. Later we will have to discard many of these domains and rewrite them with high performance algorithms which obey the same interface specifications. Most of these first attempt domains can be implemented In a matter of days.

* Last, but certainly not least, we have a relatively high technology “office of the future” system called AUGMENT which we are using to keep all of our design notes as well as our user documentation. The use of this system,will save us a significant amount of labor as we develop a user community over the next several years.

The combination of these facilities has made it possible for us to implement a great deal of function very quickly. As Norm mentioned earlier, we have only just started running our first domains recently. Yet we expect to be able to have a significant online database application operational within a year.

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NIOde

NIOde

Web site: niode.nl (not active)
Origin: Netherlands
Category: Specialist
Desktop environment: IceWM ?
Architecture: x86
Based on: Knoppix
Wikipedia:
Media: Live CD
The last version | Released: 20040930 | September 30, 2004

NIOde (NIO Development Environment) – a live, Knoppix based Linux distribution which contains all appropriate IOI programming tools.

IOI = International Olympiad in Informatics

Download

NIOde 20040930 i386 577MB.iso
md5sum: 6b980eb572c7b76d636ee0a25a237978

 

HPBSD

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Web site: flux.utah.edu/~mike/hpbsd/hpbsd.html
Origin: USA
Category: Server
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: HP 9000
Based on: 4.3BSD
Wikipedia:
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 2.0 | April 1993

HPBSD – a port of 4.3BSD UNIX operating system for the HP9000 300, 400, 700 and 800 series machines done by Systems Programming Group at the University of Utah, developed between 1987 and 1993.

The goal was to replace the HP-UX (System V derivative) with BSD environments on HP machines in Utah CS department, in order to improve compatibility with Vaxen who worked on BSD and Sun workstations that ran on SunOS. Port was completed in a month, thanks to an older BSD port for HP 9000/200. Trait that was HPBSD tell any binary compatibility with HP-UX-TV. I went to support the HP 9000 HPBSD was later inserted into the main tree BSD code, and appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.

The current version, HPBSD 2.0, is still largely based on 4.3bsd but has the 4.4bsd filesystem and networking kernel code and utilities as well as the ANSI-compliant C library. This version was “released” in April 1993. Improvements has been limited to bug fixes and support for new hp700 CPUs that we have. It is still the desktop operating system of choice inside the Flux and Avalanche research groups.

HPBSD is based on the 4.3 release of BSD from CSRG at Berkeley with additions from 4.4bsd and numerous local modifications. It still looks and feels pretty much like a 4.3 system, but configuring and building software packages is more 4.4bsd-like.

Supported Hardware: HP300/400 (68k based) and HP700/800 (PA-RISC based).
Since HPBSD contains AT&T and HP proprietary code it is not freely available.

The project founder is Mike Hibler.

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MoLinux

MoLinux

Web site: molinux.info (not active)
Origin: Spain
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: GNOME
Architecture: x86
Based on: Ubuntu
Wikipedia (ES): MoLinux
Media: Live DVD
The last version | Released: 6.2 | December 26, 2010

MoLinux – an Ubuntu based Linux distribution targeted to Spanish users and developed by the Ministry of Education of Castilla La Mancha in Spain. It includes some features such as Nanny (a parental control), KeePassX (password manager), Sinadura (application to digitally sign a PDF document), MolinuxSync (allows us to synchronize files within a workgroup ), Gnome Control Center (to configure our system easily), XBMC (a complete multimedia center), etc.

Molinux 6.0 “Zoraida” Educativa features educational applications, for all ages, already known by users and integrated into previous versions of Molinux Educativa, such as:
– Childsplay
– Gcompris educational suite
– TuxMath
– Dr. Geo
– Diagram Editor
– Marble
– Audacity, etc.
In total, there are more than 60 educational applications prepared for immediate use in classrooms.

The MoLinux Netbook interface has been designed to be very simple and intuitive. This distribution has been designed and adapted for small laptops. Thanks to the new interface, it will be easier to find your favorite applications and access the internet faster, office tools, multimedia applications and many others.

MoLinux Netbook is oriented for educational environments and is based on the current version of MoLinux Educational 6.0. It offers a complete solution in terms of educational software for preschool, primary and secondary education; control of computer rooms through the TCOS tool, office environment, multimedia, range of educational games, etc.

The distribution was under active development between December 2004 and 2010.

Download

MoLinux 6.0 i386 1.21GB.iso
md5sum: 0f154c9a6fc87148664b2d5b5cd89c65

 

NicEDesktop

NicEDesktop

Web site: havoc9.com/nice/ (not active)
Origin: ?
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: Xfce
Architecture: x86
Based on: Debian
Wikipedia:
Media: Live CD
The last version | Released: 1.0 | August 10 (?) 2007

NicEDesktop – a Debian based Linux distribution which works in live mode.

It comes with many programs for both recreational and administrative purposes. Its main goals are to be useful and entertaining while maintaining user-friendliness, as well as to provide a “complete” temporary operating system for any PC user.

NicEDesktop uses Xfce desktop environment as default.
The latest version 1.0 is based on Debian “Lenny”.

The live user is: ‘root’; with ‘toor’ password.
To start Xfce desktop type: startdesk

Download

NicEDesktop 1.0 i386 617MB.iso
md5sum: d2d5472d10c4d4ed38b4bd8880cc199b

 

2.11BSD

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Web site: github.com/RetroBSD/2.11BSD
Origin: ?
Category: Server
Desktop environment: CLI
Architecture: x86
Based on: 4.3BSD
Wikipedia:
Media: Install
The last version | Released: 2.11 | November 1994

2.11BSD – a BSD operating system based on and comes with several missing pieces that came after the 4.3BSD-Tahoe. 2.11BSD CSRG was the last edition of the DEC PDP-11 line system. This release is maintained Steven Schultz with a series patchlevel. It is the release of 4.4BSD-Lite, and requires the original UNIX license.

The system hasn’t been fit onto a non-separate I&D or machine without a floating point processor in a long time. Lots of overlay schemes need to be worked out; the floating point simulator in the kernel hasn’t been tested; sendmail won’t run on a non-separate machine, so bin/mail and ucb/Mail have to auto-configure not to use sendmail; csh is overlaid now even on a separate I&D machine, /lib/cpp is pushing the limit to handle all the #define’ing that is required to compile the kernel.

Due to the amount of software ported from 4.3BSD (and the Internet) he number of PORT directories has been cut down in order to fit the distribution on two 1600bpi tapes. Many of the sources not included are available from INTERNET archive sites, others will have to be acquired from a friendly 4.3BSD site.

Credits: Cyrus Rahman, of Duke University; Steven Schultz, of Contel Federal Systems; Keith Bostic; Casey Leedom.

Download

2.11BSD-pl195 i386 27MB.tar
md5sum: fae5078f664069a383013325d290960a

 

Miko GNYO/Linux

Miko GNYO/Linux

  • Web site: miko.gnyo.org
  • Origin: Japan
  • Category: Desktop
  • Desktop environment: Gnome
  • Architecture: x86
  • Based on: Ubuntu
  • Wikipedia:
  • Media: Live DVD
  • The last version | Released: 4.8 | January 9, 2012

Miko GNYO/Linux – a live Linux distribution based on Ubuntu with Xen Virtual Machine Monitor.

The latest version comes with GNOME desktop environment and Japanese language as default.

An older version was based on Debian GNU/Linux and featured Xfce desktop environment.

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Miko GNYO/Linux 3.0S Core i386 1.0GB.iso
md5sum: 5634da3c29b6f5c19ed5e31704714be2

 

Netkit Live

Netkit Live

  • Web site: wiki.netkit.org
  • Origin: Italy
  • Category: Specialist
  • Desktop environment: LXDE
  • Architecture: x86
  • Based on: Knoppix
  • Wikipedia:
  • Media: Live DVD
  • The last version | Released: 2013-2 | January 16, 2013

Netkit Live – a live Linux distribution based on Knoppix, and features Netkit exploits open source software (mostly licensed under GPL) and is heavily based on the User Mode Linux (UML) variant of the Linux kernel.

Netkit is an environment for setting up and performing networking experiments at low cost and with little effort. It allows to “create” several virtual network devices (full-fledged routers, switches, computers, etc.) that can be easily interconnected in order to form a network on a single PC. Networking equipments are virtual but feature many of the characteristics of the real ones, including the configuration interface.

Netkit consists of three components: a core including the user interface and the documentation, a kernel for the virtual machines, and a filesystem containing the networking tools and services. These components are distributed separately to limit the impact of updates, however all the components are required for Netkit to work properly.

Netkit is the result of the joint work of several people from the Computer Networks Laboratory of the Roma Tre University and from the Linux User Group LUG Roma 3.

Download

Netkit Live DVD 2013-2 i386 2.28GB.iso
md5sum: 1d4e775613c1d888b21b3cfbee56ce94
Netkit Live CD 4TIC i386 781MB.iso
md5sum: fd1aefe454cf282d9a82d38680fe1b5e

 

386BSD

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  • Web site: 386bsd.org
  • Origin: USA
  • Category: Server
  • Desktop environment: CLI
  • Architecture: x86
  • Based on: UNIX
  • Wikipedia: 386BSD
  • Media: Install
  • The last version | Released: 2.0 | August 2016

386BSD – a derived from 4.3BSD, the first open source Berkeley UNIX operating system. It was the progenitor of Linux, iOS, and Android. Beginning with “A Modest Proposal” in 1989, 386BSD broke from proprietary systems by having publicly accessible code and documentation.

386BSD Release 0.0 was distributed in 1993 in tandem to the popular “Porting Unix to the 386” article series published in Dr. Dobb’s Journal.
Release 0.1 quickly followed, enhanced with contributions throughout the globe.

386BSD Release 1.0, aka Jolix, was a break from earlier Berkeley UNIX systems through use of a modular architecture. 386BSD Release 2.0 built upon the modular framework to create self-healing components. Each release introduced novel mechanisms from role-based security to polymorphic protocols.

386BSD.org provides the opportunity to interact with the original source, articles and supporting materials, and a live demo of 386BSD Release 2.0.

386BSD is a mother of free BSD systems today, such as: BSD/386, NetBSD, FreeBSD, BSD/OS, Darwin, OpenBSD and others.

The project authors are Lynne and William Jolitz.

 

Multi Distro LiveCD

Multi Distro LiveCD

Web site: multidistro.tlm-project.org (not active)
Origin: ?
Category: Desktop
Desktop environment: Enlightenment, JWM, KDE
Architecture: x86
Based on: R.I.P.
Wikipedia:
Media: Live CD
The last version | Released: 2.5 | February 22, 2006

Multi Distro LiveCD – a LiveCD that contains 9 different mini Linux distributions, all executable when you start the PC without installing them on a hard disk.

The Live CD features following distributions: Slax, GeexBOX, DamnSmallLinux, INSERT, RIP, Mpentoo, Olive, Grafpup, Limp, and a memory checker is included in a single 700 Mb CD.

The project founder is Sandu Ionut.

Download

Multi Distro LiveCD 2.5 i386 714MB.iso
md5sum: 9daad899256a84470ea10e8ba4d59dc3